Means of Motion
Carriages, coaches or sleighs could not serve as means of transport
on their own. It is though necessary to mention the means of motion. Not mentioning
the so-called rickshaws that have been used in many parts of the world and have
still been driven by human power, carriages, coaches and sleigh have been pulled
by various animals.
The most often the animals of draught were horses, mules, donkeys, cows, goats and dogs. Cows were harnessed in from necessity, goats for fun and dogs as auxiliary power.
To be more clear a table follows mentioning the potential of individual animals of draught:
|Animal of draught||
Tractive force (kg)
This table states details in "ideal circumstances"
only. If the animal is not performing full tractive force, of course, the speed
of the coach can be faster. If more animals are harnessed in, their tractive
force in total is usually smaller. With four horses their total tractive force
is about 4/5 of the total sum of their individual tractive force, with eight
horses about half of the total sum, etc.
On the contrary, for shorter distances (up to 600 m) the force can be doubled. Moving on a good road a pair of light-middle weight horses can pull up to 2, 000 kg during eight-hour work in hilly grounds, on flat grounds up to 3, 500 kg of useful load.
Light junker tackle
Lord's Phaeton - chest leaf tackle
Luxurious Sleigh tackle
Display of harness equipment
Conduct of a five-horse team
Wide fastening of three horses (view taken from above)