Means of Motion

Carriages, coaches or sleighs could not serve as means of transport on their own. It is though necessary to mention the means of motion. Not mentioning the so-called rickshaws that have been used in many parts of the world and have still been driven by human power, carriages, coaches and sleigh have been pulled by various animals.
The most often the animals of draught were horses, mules, donkeys, cows, goats and dogs. Cows were harnessed in from necessity, goats for fun and dogs as auxiliary power.
To be more clear a table follows mentioning the potential of individual animals of draught:

Animal of draught
Tractive force (kg)
Speed (m/s)
Horse
60-75-90
1,1
Ox
60
0,8
Mule
50
1,0
Donkey
40
0,8

This table states details in "ideal circumstances" only. If the animal is not performing full tractive force, of course, the speed of the coach can be faster. If more animals are harnessed in, their tractive force in total is usually smaller. With four horses their total tractive force is about 4/5 of the total sum of their individual tractive force, with eight horses about half of the total sum, etc.
On the contrary, for shorter distances (up to 600 m) the force can be doubled. Moving on a good road a pair of light-middle weight horses can pull up to 2, 000 kg during eight-hour work in hilly grounds, on flat grounds up to 3, 500 kg of useful load.


Light junker tackle


Lord's Phaeton - chest leaf tackle


Luxurious Sleigh tackle


Display of harness equipment


Conduct of a five-horse team


Višněvský's preparation


Wide fastening of three horses (view taken from above)


Ten-fold covering